Nursing theorists

Nursing theorists

Discussion 250 Words Apa Format

After reading about the three nursing theorists in chapters 29, 30, and 31, reflect upon the events that are happening in health care today (Covid-19 Pandemic).

1. Which theorist would you select to construct a framework for care of your staff and patients?

2. Please explain why using two bulleted examples.

***Think about some of the concepts involved. Examples include fear, isolation, family separation, being pregnant and exposed to the virus, psychological issues, guilt, impacted care standards.

Remember your citations and follow the course grading rubric.

Discussion Board Rubric(Worth 3 points)



Introduction and quality of discussion’s Argument 

1 point

It is consistent with application in research related to its context. Clarity of ideas.

0.50 point

The topic has a partially weak association to the clarity of ideas and related topics.

The objectivity of Tone, overall quality & Review of

Literature in APA 6th format within the past 7 years

1 point

The tone is consistent, addressed professionally and objectively.

Evidence in literature supports arguments.

0.50 point

The tone is not consistently objective. Partially poor evidence in the review of the literature.

Quality of Reply posts

1 point

Consistent clarity and supported by research evidence.

0.25 point

Partially lack clarity or lack of support with research evidence.

Theory of Bureaucratic Caring: Marilyn Anne Ray

Chapter 31

Overview of the Theory of Bureaucratic Caring

Seven concepts are arranged around the central concept of spiritual–ethical caring:

Educational factors include formal and informal education programs as well as other forms of teaching and sharing of information

Physical factors are related to physical state of being, including both biological and mental patterns

Overview of the Theory of Bureaucratic Caring

Sociocultural factors include ethnicity and family structures, friends and family relationships, communication, social interaction and support, intimacy, and structures of cultural groups, community, and society

Legal factors include responsibility and accountability, rules and principles to guide behaviors, rights, and the practice of defensive medicine and nursing

Overview of the Theory of Bureaucratic Caring

Technological factors include nonhuman resources such as machinery used in patient care, diagnostic tests, and pharmaceutical agents, as well as the skill needed to use the resources

Economic factors include budgets, insurance systems, limitations and guidelines imposed by managed care organizations, and allocation of resources as necessary to maintain the economic viability of the organization

Overview of the Theory of Bureaucratic Caring

Political factors and the structure within healthcare administration influence how nursing is viewed and influence patterns of communication and decision making in the organization

An additional issue within the political factor is trust or lack of trust, which can lead to disillusionment and decreased loyalty to the organization

Major Concepts of Nursing Based on the Theory of Bureaucratic Caring

Person: a spiritual and cultural being

Environmental: a complex spiritual, ethical, ecological, and cultural phenomenon

Health: not simply the consequence of a physical state of being but rather it provides a pattern of meaning for individuals, families, and communities

Major Concepts of Nursing Based on the Theory of Bureaucratic Caring

Nursing: a holistic, relational, spiritual, and ethical caring that seeks the good of self and others in complex community, organizational, and bureaucratic cultures

Assumptions of the Theory of Bureaucratic Caring

The meaning of caring is highly differential, depending on its structures (i.e., sociocultural, educational, political, economic, physical, technological, and legal)

Caring is bureaucratic as well as spiritual/ethical

Caring is the primordial construct and consciousness of nursing

Propositions of the Theory of Bureaucratic Caring

Nursing and caring are experiential and contextual, and are influenced by the social structure or the culture in the organization

Caring can positively influence surrounding structures

The Theory of Bureaucratic Caring as a Framework for Nursing Care

Assessment: team effort with focus depending on the internal or external forces precipitating assessment; considers the physical, socio-cultural, educational, legal, political, economic, and technological structural factors and their interconnections and is conducted in manner grounded in caring, with goal of promoting the good of others within the organization

The Theory of Bureaucratic Caring as a Framework for Nursing Care

Planning: data analyzed in each structure area

Implementation: strategies directed at specific structural areas; mindful of the interconnected-ness of these areas and the centrality and interconnectedness of spiritual–ethical caring

Evaluation: based on the patterns of meaning ascribed to the process and outcomes by the members of the organization


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