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Media Technology Practice
This week, you will practice producing a screencast video presentation that allows you to report your progress on the final paper while also preparing you to build a quality final presentation for the course.
1. Build a three–slide PowerPoint (or Prezi) presentation that includes text and graphics. Outline your answers to the following questions:
- What are some specific questions you have concerning the final argument paper?
- What is your time–management plan for compiling and editing your final paper?
- What parts of your final paper do you anticipate will take the most time and attention? For example:
- Incorporating instructor feedback in your perspective papers
- Reworking the perspective papers into one cohesive paper
- Writing the introduction, conclusion, or abstract
- APA formatting
- Revising for grammar, spelling, and punctuationCULTURAL AND ETHICAL PERSPECTIVES OF INQUIRY
Cultural and Ethical Perspectives of Inquiry
Healthcare providers need to consider cultural and ethical factors when providing care services to patients. Patient satisfaction at the emergency department (ED) may involve respecting patients’ rights, their cultural beliefs, and protecting confidentiality. The violation of patients’ rights and privacy make them unhappy with the provided services. Healthcare facilities have implemented policies that ensure nurses and physicians observe culture and ethics to improve the satisfaction of patients. Cedars Sinai in Los Angeles and Vail Medical Center in Colorado has implemented policies to restrict recordings within ED. In the entire U.S., most states have passed laws on patient confidentiality which enable an individual to make part of interplay to record it because only consent from one party is needed to get care services in the ED. A practice of audiovisual recording is unethical within the ED. There is a need to post precautions in the emergency room, waiting for the bay, and patient wards to discourage such acts.
Cultural and Ethical Perspectives of Inquiry
Within the Emergency Department (ED), patients expect getting quality emergency care services. As a result, nurses and physicians should concentrate on observing cultural, ethical, legal, and regulatory guidelines to make legitimate decisions that do not lead to declined patient satisfaction scores. When providing treatment to ED patients, it is critical to consider their consent because any ED’s decision, contrary to their wish, is likely to decrease satisfaction scores. Various ethical, cultural, legal, and regulations determine the level of patient satisfaction at ED depending on how nurses put into practice such factors.
Ethical Perspective of Inquiry
The American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) directs healthcare facilities to develop and implement regulations concerning patient audiovisual recording within the emergency department, involving limitations in areas with a justifiable expectation of confidentiality (Iserson, Allan, Geiderman, & Goett, 2019). Depending on the state and hospital, rules and regulations that restrict audiovisual recordings vary. For instance, healthcare centers such as Cedars Sinai in Los Angeles and Vail Medical Center in Colorado have implemented laws limiting most recordings that even family members of patients have granted a permission.
In many states, confidentiality legislation permits an individual making part of a discussion or interplay to record it because only consent from one party is required to receive treatment in the emergency department. That consent requirement implies that even if an individual is not a party to the discussion, for instance, family members overseeing interactions of a care provider with a sick person, they can record the interplay provided that one party gets participates in consent. From 2019, any audiovisual-based recording among ED patients without two-party consent became unlawful in more than eleven states, normally as part of their wiretapping legislation. For instance, according to Iserson et al., (2019), California law gives at most $2500 penalty and one-year imprisonment due to violation of audiovisual recording Act.
Iserson et al., (2019) review ethical and legal issues facing emergency departments that struggle to improve patient satisfaction scores. Through the research, audiovisual recording within emergency departments is unethical and illegal since it violates patient privacy and confidentiality rights. Since patients are not supposed to be recorded without their consent, nurses who record them continue to lower patient satisfaction since recording make patients’ experience hard (Iserson et al., 2019). In general, recording images and voices of ED patients raises legal and ethical concerns. Moskop et al., (2019) review ethical and moral consequences that result from overcrowding within the emergency department (Moskop, Geiderman, Marshall, McGreevy, Derse, Bookman, & Iserson, 2019). The article indicates that some of the significant moral and ethical outcomes of overcrowding are delivering poor patient outcomes, medication mistakes, and compromised patient privacy and confidentiality.
Hospitals have focused on discouraging illegal audiovisual recording by posting precautions at the admission rooms, waiting hall, and patient rooms. As a result of the varying privacy and confidential Acts, nurses at ED need to work as if they are ever being recorded, all the time keeping professionalism and communicating precisely. Taking patient photographs present a significant challenge. Because these photographs do not include audio recording, they are not restricted or prohibited, even in states requiring two-party consent, unless certain laws exist (Iserson et al., 2019). However, they can be illegal and prohibited in private healthcare centers with policies regarding photography. Offences may lead to a breach of the right of a person to confidentiality.
From the perspective of ethical theories, utilitarianism theory best explains the consequences of ED situations with long waits, overcrowding, and patients leaving without being treated. Under the context of utilitarianism, hospitals should predict patient satisfaction consequences if they decide to offer emergency care services in an environment that is not conducive for patients. When the ED becomes congested, experiences slow workflow, and many patients are leaving without treatment; it means that the hospital, ED, in particular, does not act in a way that benefits patients seeking emergency services (McCarthy, Mikkola, & Thomas, 2020). This act may increase death risks. As a result, patients feel unsatisfied with the offered services and may consider seeking emergency care services from other hospitals.
Cultural Perspective of Inquiry
According to Govere & Govere, (2016), healthcare workers should consider cultural and ethical factors to enhance general patient satisfaction. According to the article, the United States experiences increased healthcare disparities and needs, minority groups, regulations, and ethical requirements (Govere, & Govere, 2016). Respecting a patient’s right, cultural beliefs, right to life, make a decision, and respect is critical for healthcare specialists to be culturally qualified to offer quality care and enhance satisfaction of patient, especially among marginalized populations.
Emergency departments experience tremendous issues and challenges when giving high-quality emergence care to patients of different backgrounds. There are shortages of linguistically and ethnically diverse nurses who can help in ameliorating ethnic disparities in ED. Cultural factors prevalent among ethnic groups are supportive and substitute medicine, health insurance‐related prejudice, racial concordance of a nurse and patient, and discrimination on age basis. Spirituality, the participation of a family of patient in making healthcare choices, and ethnicity‐based discrimination are unique to minority groups (Nápoles‐Springer, Santoyo, Houston, Pérez‐Stable, & Stewart, 2005). Experiences concerning the acceptance of nurses of complementary and alternative drugs are mixed among blacks, with most physicians at ED implying insensitivity to choices of patients receiving emergence care services.
Blacks feel that nurses are too fast to disregard their home medication or are not sensitive to cultural values and beliefs, such as forbid needle sticks. At ED, African American patients have a perception that nurses did not listen to them when they brought up for alternative emergence care treatment. As a result, such patients do not get satisfied with offered care services because they feel being disrespected to their beliefs. Spanish‐speaking patients reveal significant dissatisfaction with English‐speaking physicians working at the ED. As a result, these patients feel that they get low quality quality care services compared to their English‐speaking counterparts. Most Spanish‐speaking patients at ED experience delay because they fear that non‐Spanish‐speaking nurses are not committed to attending them. As a result, this delay becomes a barrier when accessing healthcare (Nápoles‐Springer et al., 2005). A dominant notion is that the ED staff is mostly not willing to help Spanish‐speaking patients. However, the presence of Spanish‐speaking nurses at ED enhance the workflow since the communication gets eased, and delivery of the services is fast due to a greater understanding of each other.
Among most African–American patients visiting the emergency department for healthcare services, the probability of being discriminated due to race and biasness exists during hospital admission with a racially discordant nurse. Depending on particular non‐verbal gestures, such as keeping nurse-patient physical distance or hesitating to come into contact with a patient when performing surgery, black patients perceive nurses as acting on prejudice (Nápoles‐Springer et al., 2005). As a result, they get some bad vibe, how a nurse or physician treats them. Patients, therefore, do not appreciate the services, and their satisfaction scores continue to decline.
In many circumstances at the ED, patients want to know and determine if the nurses or physicians they are dealing with them are prejudiced. For instance, some black patients think that nurses at some point assume that they are intellectually weak and not superior, or drug dealers depending on their race. Blacks perceive that nurses treat them as whites when they are involved in making decisions regarding their treatment (Nápoles‐Springer et al., 2005). For instance, a young adult, English‐speaking Latina women think that they are stereotyped by ED nurses as people who can withstand pain for some time, hence do not need emergency care.
Conclusively, cultural, legal, and ethical factors influence the outcome of the level of patient satisfaction scores among patients at the ED. Audiovisual recording, privacy and confidentiality, cultural competency, and respect for patient choice are major issues that determine patient satisfaction within the ED. Nurses and physicians should acknowledge the potential value and usefulness of audiovisual recording in the ED and push for the hospital’s take on consistent specialty-broad and local regulations that stress safeguarding patient privacy to improve patient satisfaction. Cultural-associated issues such as discrimination, stereotypes, and language barriers undermine patients’ happiness at the emergency department. Overall, hospitals, through their emergency departments, should reconsider having culturally qualified healthcare workers who can comply with laws, ethics and practice a high level of professionalism when handling diverse patients to ensure increased patient satisfaction.
Govere, L., & Govere, E. M. (2016). How effective is cultural competence training of healthcare providers on improving patient satisfaction of minority groups? A systematic review of literature. Worldviews on Evidence‐Based Nursing, 13(6), 402-410. https://sigmapubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/wvn.12176
Iserson, K. V., Allan, N. G., Geiderman, J. M., & Goett, R. R. (2019). Audiovisual recording in the emergency department: Ethical and legal issues. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 37(12), 2248-2252. https://pdf.sciencedirectassets.com/272456/1-s2.0-S0735675719X0011X/1-s2
McCarthy, D., Mikkola, K., & Thomas, T. (2020). Utilitarianism with and without expected utility. Journal of Mathematical Economics, 87, 77-113.
Moskop, J. C., Geiderman, J. M., Marshall, K. D., McGreevy, J., Derse, A. R., Bookman, K., … & Iserson, K. V. (2019). Another look at the persistent moral problem of emergency department crowding. Annals of emergency medicine, 74(3), 357-364. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196064418314793?casa_token=B
Nápoles‐Springer, A. M., Santoyo, J., Houston, K., Pérez‐Stable, E. J., & Stewart, A. L. (2005). Patients’ perceptions of cultural factors affecting the quality of their medical encounters. Health Expectations, 8(1), 4-17.
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